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MINISTERIODE MEDIO AMBIENTE
SECRETARAGENERALDE MEDIO AMBIENTE
DIRECCIN GENERALDE CONSERVACINDE LA NATURALEZA
CONTENTSLIST OF FIGURES AND TABLES
1. BASIC OBJECTIVES 2. GUIDING PRINCIPLES
PART ONE. BREAKDOWN OF THE CURRENT SITUATION
1. THE PHYSICAL ENVIRONMENT 1.1 GENERAL FEATURES OF SPANISH GEOMORPHOLOGY1.2 CLIMATE, RELIEF AND SOIL: THE NATURAL LANDSCAPE1.3 THE COASTAL AND MARINE ENVIRONMENT1.4 BIOGEOGRAPHIC REGIONS AND BIOCLIMATIC STOREYS
2. BIOLOGICAL DIVERSITY: COMPONENTS AND CONSERVATION STATUS 2.1 NATURAL HABITATS
2.1.1 THE TERRESTRIAL ENVIRONMENT2.1.2 THE MARINE ENVIRONMENT
2.2 WILD SPECIES 2.2.1 TERRESTRIAL AND FRESHWATER SPECIES2.2.2 MARINE SPECIES
2.3 GENETIC RESOURCES 2.3.1 CULTIVATED PLANTS2.3.2 LIVESTOCK BREEDS 2.3.3 MICRO-ORGANISMS 2.3.4 MODIFIED LIVING ORGANISMS2.3.5 ACCESS TO GENETIC RESOURCES2.3.6 GENETIC RESOURCE PROTECTION SYSTEMS
2.4 TRADITIONAL KNOWLEDGE
3. CURRENT STATE OF CONSERVATION INSTRUMENTS3.1 SOCIAL INSTRUMENTS3.2 SCIENTIFIC INSTRUMENTS3.3 ECONOMIC INSTRUMENTS 3.4 INSTITUTIONAL AND LEGAL INSTRUMENTS
4. PROCESSES AFFECTING BIODIVERSITY BY ACTIVITY SECTOR
5. PERIODIC UPDATING OF THE BREAKDOWN
PART TWO. REGIONAL STRATEGIES, SECTOR PLANS, GUIDELINES AND MEASURES
2. SECTOR PLANS AND SECTOR PLAN GUIDELINES2.1 SECTOR PLANS2.2 SECTOR PLAN GUIDELINES2.3 OPERATIONAL IMPLEMENTATION OF THE PLANS
3. MEASURES3.1 NATURAL RESOURCE AND LAND PLANNING 3.2 IN-SITU CONSERVATION
3.2.1 PROTECTED NATURAL AREAS AND OTHER MUNICIPALAND PRIVATE AREAS
3.2.2 CONSERVATION OUTSIDE NATURAL AREAS3.2.3 SPECIES CONSERVATION 3.2.4 HABITAT CONSERVATION3.2.5 WETLANDS3.2.6 THE MARINE ENVIRONMENT 3.2.7 MODIFIED LIVING ORGANISMS
3.3 EX-SITU CONSERVATION3.4 ACCESS TO GENETIC RESOURCES AND TECHNOLOGIES.
TRADITIONAL KNOWLEDGE3.5 INSTITUTIONAL REFORMS3.6 LEGISLATIVE REFORMS3.7 ECONOMIC REFORMS3.8 ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT3.9 EDUCATION AND PUBLIC AWARENESS3.10 RESEARCH3.11 INTERNATIONAL COOPERATION
4. BREAKDOWN OF COMPLETION DEADLINES FOR MAIN ACTIONS4.1 TECHNICAL MONITORING UNIT4.2 SECTOR PLANS4.3 STRATEGIES OF THE AUTONOMOUS REGIONS4.4 MAIN MEASURES
I AGRICULTURAL SECTORII FORESTRY. THE SPANISH FORESTRY STRATEGY
III FISHING AND AQUACULTUREIV HUNTING AND ANGLINGV ENERGY SECTOR
VI TOURISMVII INDUSTRY
VIII LAND PLANNING AND TOWN PLANNINGIX TRANSPORT SECTOR X WATER POLICY
XI HEALTH SECTORXII TRADE SECTOR
XIII RURAL DEVELOPMENT AND SPAINS STRATEGY FOR THE CONSERVATIONAND SUSTAINABLE USE OF BIODIVERSITY
XIV COMMUNITY BIODIVERSITY STRATEGYXV THE FUTURE STRATEGIC PLAN FOR THE CONSERVATION AND RATIONAL USAGE
OF BIODIVERSITYXVI THE ECONOMICS UNDERLYING SPAINS STRATEGY FOR THE CONSERVATION
AND SUSTAINABLE USE OF BIODIVERSITY
PARTICIPANTS AND ASSOCIATES GLOSSARY OF ACRONYMS
FIGURE 1 SPAINS GEOGRAPHICAL STRUCTUREFIGURE 2 BIOGEOGRAPHICAL REGIONS AND BIOCLIMATIC STOREYSFIGURE 3 HUMAN POPULATION DENSITYFIGURE 4 ENDEMIC PLANT SPECIES OF THE IBERIAN PENINSULA AND BALEARIC ISLANDSFIGURE 5 THREATENED VERTEBRATES AND VASCULAR PLANTS
TABLE 1 SPANISH LANDSCAPE UNITSTABLE 2 BREAKDOWN OF DIRECTIVE 92/43-LISTED HABITATS FOUND IN SPAINTABLE 3 BREAKDOWN OF THE BIODIVERSITY OF DIRECTIVE 92/43-LISTED HABITATS IN SPAINTABLE 4 NATURAL STATUS (1,2,3) OF SPANISH HABITATS AS AN INDICATION OF THEIR CON-
SERVATION STATUS (LOW, MODERATE, HIGH). HECTARES AND PERCENTAGES SHOWNIN GROUPS OF HABITAT TYPES LISTED IN EU HABITATS DIRECTIVE 92/43/CEE
TABLE 5 OCEANOGRAPHIC FEATURES OF MARINE AREASTABLE 6 DIVERSITY OF VASCULAR PLANTS AND VERTEBRATES IN EUROPEAN COUNTRIESTABLE 7 CONSERVATION STATUS OF SPANISH FLORA & FAUNA (IUCN CATEGORIES)TABLE 8 BENTHIC FLORA OF SPANISH COASTSTABLE 9 SALTWATER INVERTEBRATES IN SPANISH WATERSTABLE 10 CULTIVARS OF SPANISH ORIGINTABLE 11 LIST OF CATTLE, SHEEP, GOAT, PIG AND HORSE BREEDSTABLE 12 SEED BANKSTABLE 13 CENTRES FOR FAUNA CONSERVATION AND CAPTIVE BREEDINGTABLE 14 RED DATA LISTS PUBLISHED IN SPAINTABLE 15 PROTECTED NATURAL AREAS (BY REGION)TABLE 16 PROTECTED NATURAL AREAS (BY TYPE OF PROTECTION) TABLE 17 SPECIAL PROTECTION AREAS FOR BIRDS TABLE 18 RAMSAR WETLANDSTABLE 19 MAB BIOSPHERE RESERVESTABLE 20 PROTECTED MARINE AREASTABLE 21 NATIONAL ENDANGERED SPECIES LIST TABLE 22 RECOVERY PLANS FOR ENDANGERED SPECIESTABLE 23 PROCESSES THAT MAY HAVE A NEGATIVE EFFECT ON BIODIVERSITY CONSERVATION
Biological diversity or biodiversity, taken to mean the variety and variability of wild and domes-tic living organisms along with the ecosystems they are part of (*), has become a predominantconcept in conservation due to its all-embracing scope. The concept of biodiversity has arisen fromthe need to view nature as a whole and to sustain the total sum of its components if the worldwe are building in it is to be maintained. Two largely conflicting needs arise from this biodiver-sity: its conservation and its use, which are overlapped by a third concept, sustainability, as theonly possible way out of the paradox.
If human society is to develop, it needs to exploit natural systems, extract their resourcesand use them. This has always happened, however the present rate is so high that it is threate-ning the very existence of these resources, and in general the elements that make up the naturalworld. These biological resources are indispensable for humankind, not only because they supplyfood, medicine and industrial products, but also because they increasingly provide environmental,cultural, social and scientific types of benefits. Thus, nature conservation is not only an ethicalobligation but it has also become a necessity for survival.
Society is now aware of this situation, and since the start of the 1970s has begun totackle the problem and acquire a range of legal tools to halt the deterioration by means of aconservation policy for the most seriously endangered components of our natural heritage. Thehigh point of this concept was reached with the ratification of a series of agreements with broadgovernmental backing, which in turn influenced the passage of conservation legislation in mostcountries. Although there was some success during this initial stage, the contradiction betweenconservation and development was ever present, generally resulting in the victory of thelatter.
A new concept is considered to have begun in the 1980s with the design of the WorldConservation Strategy, which proposed the concept of sustained development. The Strategy stres-ses the need for development based on resource exploitation within limits that permit their regen-eration and the absorption of their impact by the ecosystems. The term biodiversity was coinedlater, and nature ceased to be regarded as a set of isolated components. The institutional responseto this new concept was the Convention on Biological Diversity signed at the United Nations Riode Janeiro Conference on the Environment and Development in 1992.
The aim of the Convention is the knowledge and conservation of biodiversity as a whole,i.e. the variety of genetic, species and community life forms, and the preservation of the ecologi-cal processes. In addition to the specific conservation measures to be taken, the rational use ofbiological resources is proposed as a basic tool, understanding by this that such use by presentgenerations should not diminish their potential usage by our heirs in the future. This implies theacceptance that the conservation of the worlds biological diversity is the common responsibilityof humanity, and necessarily involves the adoption of the concept of shared responsibility and theprecautionary principle in resource usage as basic criteria.
The contradiction between exploitation and conservation is thus resolved conceptually, butsustainable usage would be just another empty term with no real repercussions if it was not putinto practice, impregnating every effect of society on nature. For this reason, the agreement itselfestablishes the need and the obligation for the signatory parties to draft national strategies, plans
(*) The Convention on Biological Diversity defines it as the variability among living organisms from all sources including,inter alia, terrestrial, marine and other aquatic ecosystems and the ecological complexes of which they are part; this inclu-des diversity within species, between species and of ecosystems.
and programmes in relation to the objectives, and to include conservation and sustainable usageof biodiversity in their sector and cross-sector plans, and programmes and policies.
Spain shares and pursues these objectives, having ratified the Convention on 21 De-cember 1993, thus joining the group of nations that have viewed it as a stimulus to the in-clusion of the principle of biodiversity conservation in their industrial policies. For this pur-pose, and as a response to this obligation, the Spanish Environment Ministry agreed toco-ordinate the development of the present Strategy. This process aims to involve the broadestpossible number of interest groups which, given the importance of the objective, should en-compass the whole of society. As a result, a series of sector round table discussions involvingnati