Nueva Gramática - Real Academia de la Lengua

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Transcript of Nueva Gramática - Real Academia de la Lengua

  • 8/3/2019 Nueva Gramtica - Real Academia de la Lengua

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    Huoqk j|kfpick

    `o ek eohjukos~kgek

    Os ek ~|ifo|k j|kfpick

    kck`fick `os`o ;93; y

    ga|oco oe |osuepk`g `o ghco

    kgs `o p|klkdg `o eks

    qoihpi`s Kck`ofiks `o ekEohjuk Os~kgek% {uo k{u

    aidkh ek hg|fk eihjspick ~k|k

    pg`gs egs bis~khgbklekhpos(

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    Oe gldopiqg `o eks

    Kck`ofiks os

    cghsojui| {uo ek huoqk

    j|kfpick% oh sus

    `iao|ohpos qo|sighos%

    eeojuo k pg`gs egs

    bis~khgbklekhpos4

    K egs usuk|igs y k egsos~ocikeispks oihqospijk`g|os= k egs {uo

    piohoh oe os~kge cgfg~|ifo|k g sojuh`k eohjuk%y k egs ~|gaosg|os `oos~kge oh egs `iqo|sgs

    hiqoeos kck`ficgs(

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    OE JHO\G4 ODOF^EGS @O _SG

    Fiofl|g

    So k`fipoh eks

    kepo|hkhciks Oeek os

    oe fiofl|g "g ekfiofl|g) fs

    hgpkleo `oe o{ui~g(

    ^o|g fiofl|kHG+++

    @gk Lilikhk `olo `o ospk| fuy

    `isjuspk`k ~g|{uo hg so k`fipo

    su j|kh k~g|pkcih eihjspick+

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    JHO\G HG OS IJ_KE [_O SORG

    Oe jho|g os uhk ~|g~io`k` `o egshgfl|os y `o egs ~|ghgfl|os {uo

    pioho ck|cpo| ihbo|ohpo y ~|g`uco

    oaocpgs oh ek cghcg|`khcik cgh egs

    `opo|fihkhpos% egs k`dopiqgs y {uo

    hg siof~|o osp |oekcighk`g cgh oesorg ligejicg(

    Eks ~o|sghkshg pohofgs jho|g%

    pohofgs sorg(

    @o kb% {uo ek or~|osih qigeohcik `o jho|gsok ihcg||ocpk ~g|{uoek qigeohcik ek cgfopoh eks ~o|sghks% hg eks ~kekl|ks( Oh huosp|keohjuk so `olo `oci| qigeohcik soruke g qigeohcik `gfspick% cgfghgs ih`ick ek \oke Kck`ofik Os~kgek(

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    \OIPO\KCIGHOS IHHOCOSK\IKS

    PKF^GCG so kco~pk ek upieitkcih

    |o`uh`khpo `oe fkscueihg y `oe aofohihg4Ek fkyg| ~k|po `o egs ciu`k`khgs y `o eksciu`k`khksos uh ci|cuheg{uig ihhocosk|ig(

    Oe c|ipo|ig lsicg `o cuke{uio| eohjuk os

    ocghgfk y sif~eiaickcih( Glpoho| ekfrifk cgfuhickcih cgh oe fohg| osauo|tg~gsileo% hg `icioh`g cgh cukp|g ~kekl|ks eg{uo ~uo`o |osufi|so oh `gs(

    K eg ek|jg `o egs epifgs kgs% `ospkck`gs fiofl|gs`o ek \KO bkh qohi`g |olkpioh`g ek kcpuke poh`ohcikke `os`glekfiohpg ih`isc|ifihk`g `oe suspkhpiqg oh suag|fk fkscueihk y aofohihk(

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    EK [email protected] @O EK IJHG\KHCIK_hk cgfisih `oe ~k|ekfohpg kh`keut so `i|iji k ek \oke Kck`ofik Os~kgeksgeicipkh`g uh ihag|fo sgl|o ek cg||occih `o egs `os`glekfiohpgs pi~g

    `i~upk`gs y `i~upk`ks% ~k`|os y fk`|os%

    higs y hiks% opcpo|k( Ek \KO |os~gh`i~uhpukeitkh`g {uo pkeos ~i|uopks

    eihjspicks sgh ihhocosk|iks(

    Oe of~eog `o ci|cuheg{uigs y suspipucighosihk`ocuk`ks4 `i~upk`gs y `i~upk`ksoeocpgs y oeocpksoh qot `o `i~upk`gs

    oeocpgs% g eeoqk| egs higs y eks hikske cgeojig oh qot `o eeoqk| egs higs kecgeojig |osuepk of~gl|oco`g|% k|piaicigsg y|i`cueg(

    K|pu|g ^|ot&\oqo|[email protected] ek \oke Kck`ofik Os~kgek

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    OE FIHISPO\IG @O @[email protected]@

    Duhpg ke fkcbisfg% {uo sulg|`ihk pg`g ke so| fkcbg% bkh c|ok`g oebofl|isfg( Y bkh geqi`k`g eg cohp|ke% oe so| bgfl|o% oh sus `gs qo|piohpos(

    Oe fuh`g so |o`uco k sorg4 oso os oe eofk `o ospk fg`o|hk bo|odk( Kbg|kcgf~|oh`o|h su |oaeodg eihjspicg( ^|ifo|g cghauh`oh jho|g y sorg4 uhksieek os aofohihg ~o|g hg bofl|k% uh sieeh os fkscueihg ~o|g hg fkcbg(((

    Oe jho|g cgfh os pie% oqipk ~|`i`ks `o piof~g%sihpopitk klk|ckh`g kflgs jho|gs y kflgs sorgs4 os fs

    ocghficg `oci|% cukh`g p|k`ucifgs oe Oqkhjoeig% `odk`{uo egs higs so kco|{uoh k f{uo `oci| egs higs y ekshiks( @oci|% ihceusg% cgh [uihpieikhg% ke hig so eo `olofrifk |oqo|ohcik% oqi`ohpofohpo k higs y hiks(KLC

    A|khciscg \g`|juot K`|k`[email protected] eks \okeos Kck`ofiks Os~kgeky `o ek Bispg|ik

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    OSP^[email protected] IHCG\\OCPGFo |oaio|g k ek osp~i`k ihcg||occih eihjspick

    `o ~k|k pg`gs y pg`ks% egs cgf~ko|gs y ekscgf~ko|ks% egs qkscgs y eks qkscks

    fkp|kck ~gepickfohpo cg||ocpk% ke `oci| `o sus

    usuk|igs( KLCJ|ojg|ig Skeqk`g|

    @o ek \oke Kck`ofik Os~kgek

    [email protected] J\KFPICK%SOG\KS Y SOG\OS

    Suspipui| egs auhcighk|igs ~g| egs auhcighk|igs y eks auhcighk|iks%ospghpg o ihpie% `osp|gtk ek ocghgfk `oe

    eohjukdo( Os j|gposcg( KLC

    A|khciscg \g`|juot K`|k`[email protected] eks \okeos Kck`ofiks Os~kgek

    y `o k Bispg|ik

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    ^k|k oqipk| eks ohjg||gsks |o~opicighos k {uo `k eujk| ek |ociohpo oihhocosk|ik cgspufl|o `o bkco| siof~|o or~ecipk ek keusih k egs `gssorgs "egs higs y eks hiks% egs ciu`k`khgs y ciu`k`khks% opc() bkcgfohtk`g k usk|so oe sflgeg `o ek k||glk "N) cgfg |ocu|sg j|aicg~k|k ihpoj|k| oh uhk sgek ~kekl|k eks ag|fks fkscueihk y aofohihk `oesuspkhpiqg% yk {uo ospo sijhg ~k|oco ihceui| oh su p|ktg eks qgckeos k y g4

    eNs hiNs( @olo poho|so oh cuohpk {uo ek k||glk hg os uh sijhgeihjspicg y% ~g| oeeg% su usg oh ospgs cksgs os ihk`fisileo `os`o oe ~uhpg`o qispk hg|fkpiqg= k ospg so kk`o ek if~gsiliei`k` `o k~eick| ospka|fuek ihpoj|k`g|k oh fucbgs cksgs sih `k| eujk| k j|kqosihcghsispohciks% cgfg gcu||o oh @k `oe hiN% `gh`o ek cghp|kccih `oe

    sgeg os qei`k ~k|k oe fkscueihg hig(Auohpo4 \KO

    EK K\\GLK HG OS _HK EOP\K

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    (

    [_ OS EK K\\GLK7[_ OS EK K\\GLK7

    Qkfgs k or~eick|eos {uo os ek k||glk4

    ;( Sflgeg {uo so upieitklk ~k|k |o~|osohpk| ek uhi`k` `o fksk eekfk`k

    k||glk4 N "~eu|ke NN)( ^osg o{uiqkeohpo k ;;%?>< Mj( "Oh K|kjh% ~osg

    o{uiqkeohpo k ;

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    Eks eohjuks oqgeucighkh% ~o|g oqgeucighkh cghoe usg~g~uek| hg cgh if~gsicighos ~gepicks `o

    k||ilk bkcikklkdg(

    ^g| oe luoh usg `o huosp|g i`igfk%^g| oe luoh usg `o huosp|g i`igfk%kfohu`g% pkhfkep|kpk`g o ihceusg%kfohu`g% pkhfkep|kpk`g o ihceusg%

    k qocos% ~o|sojui`g(k qocos% ~o|sojui`g(