Suport de Curs, Sem 1, An 1 Engl
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INSTITUTUL DE TIINE PENALE I CRIMINOLOGIE APLICAT
CATEDRA tiine socio-umaNe i limbi moderne
Lector univ., magistru Maria Arachelov
Limba strin (limba englez)
(Teze pentru studenii Institutului de Criminologie, an. I, sem I, specialitile: Drept, SSP, Psihologie)
Theme: 1. University: the basicsI. Text:
A different way of learning and teaching
At university, you ought to have sufficient maturity to work on your own for longer periods, without somebody in the room to guide you. You have more responsibility for your own success than at school. This can be frightening, but it can also make you feel free. You dont always have to do things in the way that people tell you. You have more freedom to study in the ways that are best for you.
It is your responsibility to make sensible choices of options within your programme, as well as to plan extracurricular activities. Your choices will affect your studies and your future career. Its a big responsibility but its exciting to be more in control of your own life.
Different courses have different ways of assessing your work. Exams are usually at the end of each term, but some courses leave exams until the end of the year. If the course assesses your coursework, you usually have to hand in essays, reports, project work, or you have to make an oral presentation. You mustnt hand in your work late because university regulations do not usually permit it.Essential characteristics for success at university
Whether you are a mathematician, a historian or a phisicist, here are some qualities that all your professors, tutors, and lecturers will want to see: Independence: you must be able to stand on your own two feet.
Self-motivation: you have to be able to work alone a lot.
Ability to work with others: you must be ready to organise study sessions with friends.
Ability to set objectives to improve your work.
Ability to organise your time: you need to manage your time well. You must know when and where you should be for classes, events and exans and you must know when you have to hand in your work.
Ability to decide when, how, and where you learn best.
Worries about studying and learning
It is important to give yourself time to feel comfortable. You should plan your own life instead of worrying about how well other students are doing. Some people play psychological games by saying that they do not work and can write essays the night before handing them in. Very few people can actually do this and you shouldnt really try.
Meanwhile, many other students will be worrying about some aspect of their study and it helps to be able to talk about your worries and problems. So you should find time to meet other students in your classes. All students and trainees make mistakes at times but think of the course as an adventure.
University students often have to combine their studies with work and family obligations. Students have to be very organised and creative to solve some of these problems. Students Services normally offer advice on finding work, on grants, childcare, health care, disability, discrimination and many other problems that come up.II. Grammar
English has two articles: the and a/an. The is used to refer to specific or particular nouns; a/an is used to modify non-specific or non-particular nouns.
the = definite article
a/an = indefinite article
For example, if I say, "Let's read the book," I mean a specific book. If I say, "Let's read a book," I mean any book rather than a specific book.
Here's another way to explain it: The is used to refer to a specific or particular member of a group. For example, "I just saw the most popular movie of the year." There are many movies, but only one particular movie is the most popular. Therefore, we use the.
"A/an" is used to refer to a non-specific or non-particular member of the group. For example, "I would like to go see a movie." Here, we're not talking about a specific movie. We're talking about any movie. There are many movies, and I want to see any movie. I don't have a specific one in mind.
Indefinite Articles: a and an
"A" and "an" signal that the noun modified is indefinite, referring to any member of a group. For example:
"My daughter really wants a dog for Christmas." This refers to any dog. We don't know which dog because we haven't found the dog yet.
"Somebody call a policeman!" This refers to any policeman. We don't need a specific policeman; we need any policeman who is available.
"When I was at the zoo, I saw an elephant!" Here, we're talking about a single, non-specific thing, in this case an elephant. There are probably several elephants at the zoo, but there's only one we're talking about here.
Remember, using a or an depends on the sound that begins the next word. So...
a + singular noun beginning with a consonant: a boy; a car; a bike; a zoo; a dog an + singular noun beginning with a vowel: an elephant; an egg; an apple; an idiot; an orphan a + singular noun beginning with a consonant sound: a user (sounds like 'yoo-zer,' i.e. begins with a consonant 'y' sound, so 'a' is used); a university; a unicycle an + nouns starting with silent "h": an hour
a + nouns starting with a pronounced "h": a horse
In some cases where "h" is pronounced, such as "historical," you can use an. However, a is more commonly used and preferred.
A historical event is worth recording.
Remember that these rules also apply when you use acronyms:
Introductory Composition at Purdue (ICaP) handles first-year writing at the University. Therefore, an ICaP memo generally discusses issues concerning English 106 instructors.
Another case where this rule applies is when acronyms start with consonant letters but have vowel sounds:
An MSDS (material safety data sheet) was used to record the data. An SPCC plan (Spill Prevention Control and Countermeasures plan) will help us prepare for the worst.
If the noun is modified by an adjective, the choice between a and an depends on the initial sound of the adjective that immediately follows the article:
a broken egg
an unusual problem
a European country (sounds like 'yer-o-pi-an,' i.e. begins with consonant 'y' sound)
Remember, too, that in English, the indefinite articles are used to indicate membership in a group:
I am a teacher. (I am a member of a large group known as teachers.)
Brian is an Irishman. (Brian is a member of the people known as Irish.)
Seiko is a practicing Buddhist. (Seiko is a member of the group of people known as Buddhists.)
Definite Article: theThe definite article is used before singular and plural nouns when the noun is specific or particular. The signals that the noun is definite, that it refers to a particular member of a group. For example:
"The dog that bit me ran away." Here, we're talking about a specific dog, the dog that bit me.
"I was happy to see the policeman who saved my cat!" Here, we're talking about a particular policeman. Even if we don't know the policeman's name, it's still a particular policeman because it is the one who saved the cat.
"I saw the elephant at the zoo." Here, we're talking about a specific noun. Probably there is only one elephant at the zoo.
Count and Noncount Nouns
The can be used with noncount nouns, or the article can be omitted entirely.
"I love to sail over the water" (some specific body of water) or "I love to sail over water" (any water).
"He spilled the milk all over the floor" (some specific milk, perhaps the milk you bought earlier that day) or "He spilled milk all over the floor" (any milk).
"A/an" can be used only with count nouns.
"I need a bottle of water."
"I need a new glass of milk."
Most of the time, you can't say, "She wants a water," unless you're implying, say, a bottle of water.
Geographical use of theThere are some specific rules for using the with geographical nouns.
Do not use the before:
names of most countries/territories: Italy, Mexico, Bolivia; however, the Netherlands, the Dominican Republic, the Philippines, the United States
names of cities, towns, or states: Seoul, Manitoba, Miami names of streets: Washington Blvd., Main St. names of lakes and bays: Lake Titicaca, Lake Erie except with a group of lakes like the Great Lakes names of mountains: Mount Everest, Mount Fuji except with ranges of mountains like the Andes or the Rockies or unusual names like the Matterhorn names of continents (Asia, Europe)
names of islands (Easter Island, Maui, Key West) except with island chains like the Aleutians, the Hebrides, or the Canary Islands
Do use the before:
names of rivers, oceans and seas: the Nile, the Pacific points on the globe: the Equator, the North Pole geographical areas: the Middle East, the West deserts, forests, gulfs, and peninsulas: the Sahara, the Persian Gulf, the Black Forest, the Iberian PeninsulaOmission of Articles
Some common types of nouns that don't take an article are:
Names of languages and nationalities: Chinese, English, Spanish, Russian (unless you are referring to the population of the nation: "The Spanish are known for their warm hospitality.")
Names of sports: volleyball, hockey, baseballNames of academic subjects: mathematics, biology, history, computer science
Present Simple Tense
How do we make the Present Simple Tense?
subject+auxiliary verb+main verb
There are three important exceptions