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¿Quiere confirmar que su organización está preparada para la certificación? ó ¿descubrir qué
Un Gap Analysis es un análisis que mide cómo una organización está llevando a cabo su
desempeño con respecto a una serie de criterios establecidos en base a normas o
procedimientos internos, controles seleccionados, las mejores prácticas de competencia,
etc. El resultado de este análisis establece la diferencia entre el desempeño actual y el
esperado, con un informe presentado con indicaciones sobre dónde están las deficiencias y
“qué” falta para cumplir con cada requisito de la norma.
El objetivo un Gap Analysis es:
Analizar el enfoque inicial de un proyecto de implementación: alcance, centros de trabajo a
incluir, recursos, etc.
Analizar el progreso de una implantación a mitad de la misma o hacia el final, antes de que
se vaya a realizar la auditoría de certificación.
Aunque es aplicable a cualquier norma certificable, normalmente se lleva a cabo para
nuevos esquemas de certificación, que son los que mayores dudas crean en las
organizaciones, debido precisamente a la novedad de los mismos.
El Gap Analysis se lleva a cabo a través de una auditoría in situ. Mediante una auditoría
constructiva, el auditor realiza un análisis y finalmente lleva a cabo el informe de auditoría
de Gap Analysis que se compone de las siguientes partes:
Definición del enfoque del proyecto de implantación y certificación (alcance, etc.),
Progreso en el cumplimiento de los requisitos de la norma de referencia y por lo tanto,
cuestiones pendientes de implantación,
Recomendaciones y oportunidades de mejora,
Estimación del plazo de implantación necesario (en función de los recursos estimados)
para la implantación y certificación.
Así se determina por tanto el grado de preparación de su organización ante la certificación.
Consultar las normas certificables
All information technology systems will have both advantages and disadvantages. A new system will usually seem better to some users, because it is different to the system currently in place. This new system may purport to have better functionality than the 'legacy' system. Other users may like the familiarity of the 'legacy' system and may fear possible changes being introduced. Gap analysis is one method used to compare legacy and proposed information technology systems. Gap analysis allows an organisation to recognise the features and functionality of the legacy system, compared with the requirements of the new system.
Gap Analysis is all about evaluating and improving business performance. In information technology, gap analysis is the study of the differences between two different information systems or applications, often for the purpose of determining how to get from one state to a new state. A gap is sometimes spoken of as "the space between where we are and where we want to be." Gap analysis is undertaken as a means of bridging that space.
Gap Analysis Steps
A gap analysis may include the following steps:
1. Review System
Review of the current information system or application in order to understand the processing, features or system currently in place.
2. Develop Requirements
Development of the requirements needed by the 'new system'. This may be in the form of a strategic objective that the organisation wishes to implement. This strategic objective may allow the organisation to increase their competitive advantages, or improve the technology and efficiency of their practices and procedures.
The proposed system may include:
Restructuring the current information system in order to become compliant with a new industry standard or organisation requirement
Updating the hardware of the system. For example, the current hardware may be outdated, inefficient and unable to handle the capacity needs of the organisation.
Updating the software of the system. The applications used by the organisation may not have the functionality required. There may be a newer version of the software that incorporates added features and is a 'better fit' for the organisation's requirements.
Restructuring of documents, files or information so that it is more accessible. An e-commerce website that enables customers to purchase products online. New technology may become available, ie, a new invention, or reduction in price of a product
to be more affordable for the organisation. This 'new technology' may enable the organisation to improve efficiency or productivity.
Creating new applications for use by the organisation. For example, a new database may need to be created to contain all of the organisation's data.
A comparison of the current element of the system and the new system requirements or objectives will give an idea of whether a 'gap' exists. If there is a gap there will be discrepancies between what the organisation wants and what they already have in place.
The gap analysis allows us to discover how to get from one state to a new state. This comparison may take the form of a 'Gap - Yes/No' column (see Example gap analysis table below), to identify where the gaps exist for each element.
Implications of introducing the item being evaluated. The risks and impacts of introducing/ implementing the item. More information regarding this step is contained in the resource Develop Action Plans.
The last step in the gap analysis is to make recommendations to identify the items or solutions needed to 'fill' the gap, if a gap exists. More information regarding this step is contained in resource Develop Action Plans.
Example gap analysis table
The gap analysis table shown below is an example of a template that can be used to conduct a gap analysis.
Example: Gap Analysis Table
Currently in place RequirementsGap Y/N
manual 'paper based' information system
Limited Gap Analysis Template
The template shown below, is another example of a gap analysis template. This is the template that will be followed hereon in. This template can be used to record the information gathered from the gap analysis. This is expanded further in the resource Develop Action Plans.
Example: Another Gap Analysis Table
Test/ check/ evaluate/ confirm a specified condition or situation.
The results of performing the test/ check/ evaluation/ confirmation
An example of a gap analysis following the format of the template in Example 2 above can be found in Compare Information related to current operational practices previously.
Gap analysis allows the organisation to compare an 'as is' scenario with a desired 'future state'. Gap analysis generally follows 5 steps: reviewing a current [as is] system; determining requirements of the proposed [future state] system and comparing these two states in order to determine the implications and requirements involved in getting from one state [as is], to the other [future state].
Ecological Gap Analysis
Requirement in the Programme of Work: Action 1.1.5: “ By 2006 complete protected area system gap analyses at national and regional levels based on the requirements for representative systems of protected areas that adequately conserve terrestrial, marine and inland water biodiversity and ecosystems. National plans should also be developed to provide interim measures to protect highly threatened or highly valued areas wherever this is necessary. Gap analyses should take into account Annex I of the Convention on Biological Diversity and other relevant criteria such as irreplaceability of target biodiversity components, minimum effective size and viability requirements, species migration requirements, integrity, ecological processes and ecosystem services."
What is gap analysis?
At its simplest, a gap analysis is an assessment of the extent to which a protected area system meets protection goals set by a nation or region to represent its biological diversity. Gap analyses can vary from simple exercises based on a spatial comparison of biodiversity with existing protected areas to complex studies that need detailed data gathering and analysis, mapping and use of software decision packages. All gap analyses should consider a range of different “gaps” in a protected area network:
Representation gaps: either no representations of a particular species or ecosystem in any protected area, or not enough examples of the species or ecosystem represented to ensure long-term protection.
Ecological gaps: while the species or ecosystem occurs in the protected area system, occurrence is either of inadequate ecological condition, or the protected area(s) fail to address species'' movements or specific ecological conditions needed for long-term survival or ecosystem functioning.
Management gaps: protected areas exist but management regimes (management objectives, governance types, or management effectiveness) do not provide full security for particular species or ecosystems given local conditions.
Available resources for: What is gap analysis?
1. Background- global gap analysis Actual title :Coverage Provided by the Global Protected-Area System: Is It Enough? Author: Thomas M Brooks, Mohamed I Bakaar, Tim Boucher et al Paper published in Bioscience 54, November 2004 http://www.protectedareas.info/upload/document/brooksetal.bioscience2004.pdf
1. Gap analysis – introduction: Actual title: What does gap analysis mean? A simple framework for assessment Author: Jeffrey Parrish and Nigel Dudley Summary: Outline of the background to and principles behind, protected area gap analysis http://www.protectedareas.info/upload/document/gapanalysis-introduction.pdf
1. Gap analysis - Principles of gap analysis: Actual title: Six guiding principles of gap analysis Author: Anon Summary: A set of principles for analysis: inclusion of a certain amount of redundancy and planned resilience in a fully representative system; analysis that is participatory, including key stakeholders and iterative, building on improving knowledge of biodiversity, threats, and protected area design Keywords: gap analysis, principles http://www.protectedareas.info/upload/document/sixguidingprinciplesforgapanalysis.pdf
1. Gap analysis - Selecting Conservation Targets/Biodiversity Features Author: Jonathan Higgins and Rebecca Esselman Keywords: conservation targets, biodiversity features, ecosystems, representation, coarse-fine filter http://www.protectedareas.info/upload/document/standard7feb06selectingconstargets.pdfPrinciples of Gap Analysis
Gap analyses should be driven by a series of scientific, social and political principles. Representation: choose focal biodiversity across biological scales (species and ecosystems) and realms (terrestrial, freshwater, and marine) for the gap analysis to capture the full array of biodiversity in the protected area system.
Redundancy: include sufficient examples of species and ecosystems in a protected area network to capture genetic variation and protect against unexpected losses.
Resilience: design protected area systems to withstand stresses and changes, including future changes such as global warming.
Different types of gaps: analyse representation gaps (biodiversity not found in any protected area), ecological gaps (biodiversity''s ecological needs not adequately addressed in protected areas) and management gaps (inadequate management or purpose).
A participatory approach: collaborate with key stakeholders in decisions about protected areas. The CBD demands participation, in particular by directly affectedcommunities, including indigenous and traditional peoples.
An iterative process: review and improve the gap analysis as knowledge grows and environmental conditions change.
Available Resources For Principles of Gap Analysis
1. Gap analysis - Principles of gap analysis Actual title: Six guiding principles of gap analysis Author: Anon Summary: A set of principles for analysis: inclusion of a certain amount of redundancy and planned resilience in a fully representative system; analysis that is participatory, including key stakeholders and iterative, building on improving knowledge of biodiversity, threats, and protected area design Keywords: gap analysis, principles http://www.protectedareas.info/upload/document/sixguidingprinciplesforgapanalysis.pdfStakeholder approaches
Experience in protected areas demonstrates that they are most likely to succeed when key stakeholders are involved in creation, design, and management.
Yet the relationship between people and protected areas is one of the most challenging in conservation, with conflicts often created by failing to address people’s needs. Such actions, quite apart from their social and humanitarian impacts, achieve little for conservation. Loss of traditional rights can reduce peoples’ interest in long-term land stewardship of resources and even increase the rate of damage to the protected area.
Conversely, people can play a key positive role. Many “natural” areas have been managed to some extent for hundreds or thousands of years and biodiversity may rely on traditional management. Local communities can maintain protected area values, if they agree with them, in situations where park managers have neither the time nor resources to ensure protection.
The Programme of Work stresses that planning should be participatory, involving a wide range of the right stakeholders. Many tools exist to help the process of engaging with stakeholders.
Available Resources For Stakeholder approaches
1. Guidelines - Protected area governance guidelines Actual title: Indigenous and Local Communities and Protected Areas - Towards equity and enhance conservation Author: Grazia Borrini-Feyerabend, Ashish
Kothari and Gonzalo Oviedo Summary: Guidance on policy and practice for co-managed protected areas and Community Conserved Areas Keywords: protected area, communities, governance, community conserved area http://www.protectedareas.info/upload/document/guidelinesindigenouspeople.pdf
1. Participatory tools - Ecotourism development. Actual title: Participatory Ecotourism Planning Author: Juan Carlos Bonilla Summary: Guidelines from Conservation International published in 1997 Keywords: participation, ecotourism http://www.protectedareas.info/upload/document/participatoryecotourismdevelopmentci.pdf
1. Participatory tools - FAO tools Actual title: The Participatory Process for Supporting Collaborative Management of Natural Resources, An Overview Author: Andrew W. Ingles, Arne Musch and Helle Qwist-Hoffmann Summary: Overview of participatory approaches Keywords: participation, natural resource management http://www.protectedareas.info/upload/document/faoparticipationguide.pdf
1. Participatory tools - Good governance guidelines. Actual title: Good Governance, Indigenous Peoples, and Biodiversity Conservation Author: Janis B. Alcorn Summary: Guidelines from the Biodiversity Support Programme Keywords: governance, participation http://www.protectedareas.info/upload/document/participatorytools-goodgovernanceguidelines.pdf
1. Participatory tools - Multiple stakeholder politics – CIFOR: Actual title: Where the Power Lies Author: Berevley Sithole Summary: Analysis of multiple stakeholder politics from the Center for International Forestry Research Keywords: stakeholders, power http://www.protectedareas.info/upload/document/wherethepowerlies-multipleshpolitics.pdf
1. Participatory tools – overview Actual title: Participation and Social Assessment: Tools and Techniques: World Bank Author: Jennifer Rietbergen-McCracken and Deepa Narayan Summary: Large compilation of tools and approaches to participation in natural resource management including many case studies Keywords: participation http://www.protectedareas.info/upload/document/participationtoolsandapproachs-worldbank.pdf
1. Participatory tools - Participatory conservation Actual title: Protected Areas and People - Participatopry Conservation Author: Ashish Kothari Summary: Chapter 14 of the CBD Technical Series Pubication (Key biodiversity issues for protected areas" Keywords: Participation, governance http://www.protectedareas.info/upload/document/ashishkothari-cbd-ts.pdf
1. Participatory tools - Participatory planning for marine areas Actual title: Guide to Participatory Planning for Coastal Marine Areas Author: Nestor Windevoxhel and Fernando Secaira, Proarca Summary: Methodology used in Central America Keywords: marine protected areas, participation http://www.protectedareas.info/upload/document/guidetoparticipatoryplanning.pdf
1. Participatory tools - Ramsar guidelines on indigenous peoples in wetlands Actual title: Guidelines for establishing and strengthening local communities and indigenous people's participation in the management of wetlands Author: Ramsar Bureau Summary: Detailed set of guidelines Keywords: indigenous peoples, wetlands http://www.protectedareas.info/upload/document/localandindigenouscommpartinwetlands-ramsar.pdf
1. Participatory tools - Resources from the World Bank Actual title: Participation and Social Assessment: - Tools and techniques Author: Jennifer Rietbergen-McCracken and Deepa Narayan Summary: Major ompilation of tools for participation Keywords: participation http://www.protectedareas.info/upload/document/participationtoolsandapproachs-worldbank.pdf
1. Participatory tools - Scenario building from CIFOR http://www.protectedareas.info/upload/document/scenariosforadaptivemgt-cifor.pdf
1. Participatory tools - Sharing Power Actual title: Sharing Power: Learning-by-Doing in Co-Management of Natural Resources throughout the World Author: Grazia Borrini-Feyerabend, Michel Pimbert, M. Taghi Farvar, Ashish Kothari and Yves Renard; with Hanna Jaireth, Marshall Murphree, Vicki Pattemore, Ricardo Ramirez and Patrizio Warren Summary: Large book of theory and examples of co-management of natural resources Keywords: co-management, participation http://www.iucn.org/themes/ceesp/Publications/sharingpower.htm
1. Participatory tools - Stakeholder collaboration from WWF Actual title: Stakeholder collaboration - Building Bridges for Conservation Author: WWF Summary: Discussion paper and guidance on stakeholder approaches Keywords: stakeholder, participation http://www.protectedareas.info/upload/document/stakeholdercollaboration.pdf
1. Participatory tools - Tools for Development from DFID Actual title: Tools for Development Author: Philip Dearden et al Summary: Toolkit prepared for the UK Department of International Development in 2002, including many participatory techniques Keywords: participation, development http://www.protectedareas.info/upload/document/toolsfordevelopment-dfid.pdf
1. Participatory tools - Who Counts Most Actual title: Who Counts Most - Assessing human wellbeing in sustainable forest management Author: CarolColfer et al Summary: Guidelines on how to "weight" participatory processes to ensure that those usually left out are also included, from the Center for International Forestry Research Keywords: participation http://www.protectedareas.info/upload/document/participatorytools-whocountsmost.pdfCarrying out a gap analysis
However simple or complicated, cheap or expensive, all gap analyses should follow the same basic steps outlined below
Steps in conducting a gap analysis
Identify Key Targets
Most gap analyses focus on a representative sub-set of biodiversity as both indicators for the analysis and targets for measuring conservation success.
These focal biodiversity elements (targets) define species, communities and ecosystem to be evaluated (see Identify and map status and threats to biodiversity for more on indicators). They can range from simple targets relating to the area protected to more sophisticated targets of representation or endangerment, e.g.:
Area targets: most simply, agreeing an overall national area to be protected, such as the target of 10% of terrestrial area, developed by IUCN The World Conservation Union.
Coarse filter targets: protection of broad land or water types, such as ecosystems or their components (e.g. communities ): a country might e.g., agree to protect a certain proportion of mangroves.
Fine filter targets: usually species of particularly threatened or endemic species that would not be captured by ecosystem targets. For example the European Union has used the concept of favourable conservation status of species and habitats. Targets ideally touch on both the quantity of land or water to be protected (to ensure sufficient populations or spatial extent of biodiversity) and its distribution, to ensure capturing the ecological and genetic diversity of a species or ecosystem . A simple target can be a decision to protect a a stated proportion of remaining ecosystems or to maintain species. More sophisticated targets identify in detail what needs to be protected.
Available resources for: Identify Key Targets
1. Gap analysis - Selecting Conservation Targets/Biodiversity Features Author: Jonathan Higgins and Rebecca Esselman Keywords: conservation targets, biodiversity features, ecosystems, representation, coarse-fine filter http://www.protectedareas.info/upload/document/standard7feb06selectingconstargets.pdf
1. Resources - IUCN Red List Actual title: IUCN Red List Summary: Global list of threatened or endangered species Keywords: IUCN http://www.iucnredlist.org/Status and Threats
Data are gathered to compare protected areas with species needing protection Ideally should include current distribution and biodiversity status and trends. Mapping all species is impossible so analysis relies on data for well-known species (e.g., birds); species representing particular habitats; and ecosystems. Mapping can be “coarse filter” (ecosystems, habitats) or “fine filter” (species and specialised habitats). Studies involve consolidating diverse data sets; using GIS; standardising habitat classification; and predictive models. Indicators should represent as much of the total biodiversity as possible; provide adequate data; and be sympathetic to other stakeholders. Different types of information can all be useful, including data on:
Realms Environmental domains and enduring features Ecosystems Species groups Focal species
Available resources for: Status and Threats
1. Resources - AZE brochure Actual title: Alliance for Zero Extinction Author: Anon Summary: Summary of the work of and resources available from the Alliance for Zero Extinction, which includes information on priority areas to be protected to stop extinctions Keywords: Alliance for Zero Extinction, gap alaysis http://www.protectedareas.info/upload/document/azebrochure.pdf
1. Resources - IUCN Red List Actual title: IUCN Red List Summary: Global list of threatened or endangered species Keywords: IUCN http://www.iucnredlist.org/Assess and Map
A map of protected areas is needed to compare with maps of biodiversity.
Basic data on protected areas are usually available at national level although spatial data and information on protected areas in other governance systems (e.g. private protected areas) may be lacking. Information about status of protected areas is generally less available, although studies and data on these are starting to emerge.Ideally, three pieces of information are helpful:
Distribution Protection status Management effectiveness status
Available resources for: Assess and Map
1. Approaches - indicators for integrity Actual title: Assessing condition/integrity of ecosystems: using spatial data to develop suitability indices Author: Jonathan Higgins Summary: Using spatial data as a rapid approach to quantify the relative quality and potential for persistence of specific biodiversity targets, as well as landscapes in general Keywords: integrity, assessment http://www.protectedareas.info/upload/document/approaches-indicatorsforintegrity.pdf
1. Guidelines - National System Planning for Protected Areas Actual title: National System Planning for Protected Areas Author: Adrian Davey Summary: IUCN guidelines on planning a national system of protected areas Keywords: planning, protected areas http://app.iucn.org/dbtw-wpd/edocs/PAG-001.pdfIdentify Gaps
Various options exist for using data to identify gaps in protected areas networks.
How to do the analysis: there are three general options, depending on data quality and technical capacity:
Without maps: a lot of information can be obtained just by listing all the biodiversity elements not adequately represented in a protected area network is itself very useful.
With maps: more analysis is possible, including presence or absence from the protected area network and issues such as proximity, proportion of the population protected, and information about filling gaps.
With maps plus software: systematic, algorithm based approaches to selecting new protected areas have developed rapidly in the last few years.
What to look for: two key issues are important:
What type of gap exists? – i.e. whether gaps are complete (representation gaps) partial (ecological) or are gaps in objectives, governance types or effectiveness (management gaps). In management gaps, a protected area itself appears as a “gap” if it has not been implemented or well managed.
What is the extent of the gap? – i.e. are whole new protected areas necessary, or would a corridor between existing protected areas or an extension of an existing park be sufficient to address the representation or ecological gap? These questions are central to prioritising what is needed most.
Available Resources For: Identify Gaps
1. Gap analysis – introduction Actual title: What does gap analysis mean? A simple framework for assessment Author: Jeffrey Parrish and Nigel Dudley Summary: Outline of the background to and principles behind, protected area gap analysis Keywords: gap analysis, protected areas http://www.protectedareas.info/upload/document/gapanalysis-introduction.pdfPrioritise Gaps
A gap analysis does not produce a precise plan, but rather a set of options that must be reconciled with other wants and needs. A good gap analysis will outline the priorities to be addressed and suggestions for action. Identification of priorities involves a number of different assessment steps:
Pressures and threats: to existing protected areas and unprotected ecosystems – to identify urgent action and threats to the protected area network. Many threat assessment methodologies exist.
Opportunities for new protected areas: some places may already be proposed protected areas or have a designation that could be converted into full protection status. Some community areas may be suitable as protected areas if supported by local stakeholders
Other opportunities for effective protection: some gaps may be better filled by other sympathetic management than by creating protected areas in places where they are resisted or difficult to achieve.
Capacity to implement an expanded protected area network: big plans are pointless without the capacity to make them happen. The CBD calls for national capacity assessment sfor managing protected area systems, including finance, resources, legal and policy framework, partners and skills
Available resources for: Prioritise Gaps
1. Guidelines - Category V protected areas Actual title: Management Guidelines for IUCN Category V Protected Areas Protected Landscapes/Seascapes Author: Adrian Phillips Summary: Guidelines to planning and management of ladscape/seascape protected areas where landscape characteristics and cultural landscapes are an important part of the overall value Keywords: protected area, IUCN Catgeory V, landscape http://app.iucn.org/dbtw-wpd/edocs/PAG-009.pdf
1. Guidelines - IUCN protected area categories Actual title: Guidelines for Protected Area Management Categories Author: IUCN Summary: Guidelines for application and use of the six IUCN protected area categories, identified by management objective. Available in English, French and Spanish Keywords: protected areas, categories, IUCN http://www.iucn.org/themes/wcpa/pubs/guidelines.htm#categories
1. Guidelines - Mountain protected area guidelines Actual title: Guidelines for Planning and Managing Mountain Protected Areas Author: Larry Hamilton and Linda McMillan Summary: Guidelines to planning and management of protected areas in mountain environments Keywords: mountains, protected areas http://app.iucn.org/dbtw-wpd/edocs/2004-017.pdfAgree Strategy
Once priorities are set, the gap analysis is complete. But it is only worth doing if it leads to developing one or more scenarios for expansion of the protected area network taking into account:
Size and location of new protected areas: possibly with linking habitats (corridors and buffer zones). Decisions will be made on the basis of priorities, opportunities and capacity.
Management objectives for protected areas: varying from strict protection to cultural landscapes with human communities. All have their role, but are not equally applicable to all conservation needs. IUCN identifies six categories of management objectives that can help to plan protected area networks.
Governance structures for the protected areas: who owns or manages the protected areas – can influence if communities support or oppose protection. Most governments still rely mainly on state-owned protected areas, but many other options exist, including various forms of co-management, private protected areas and community conserved areas.
Opportunities for conservation outside protected areas: biodiversity may be conserved outside protected areas, if management is effective and secure.
Opportunities to use restoration as a tool: sometimes this will just mean encouraging natural regeneration. In other cases active intervention is needed.
Available resources for: Agree Strategy
1. Guidelines - Category V protected areas Actual title: Management Guidelines for IUCN Category V Protected Areas Protected Landscapes/Seascapes Author: Adrian Phillips Summary: Guidelines to
planning and management of ladscape/seascape protected areas where landscape characteristics and cultural landscapes are an important part of the overall value Keywords: protected area, IUCN Catgeory V, landscape http://app.iucn.org/dbtw-wpd/edocs/PAG-009.pdf
1. Guidelines - IUCN protected area categories Actual title: Guidelines for Protected Area Management Categories Author: IUCN Summary: Guidelines for application and use of the six IUCN protected area categories, identified by management objective. Available in English, French and Spanish Keywords: protected areas, categories, IUCN http://www.iucn.org/themes/wcpa/pubs/guidelines.htm#categories
1. Guidelines - Mountain protected area guidelines Actual title: Guidelines for Planning and Managing Mountain Protected Areas Author: Larry Hamilton and Linda McMillan Summary: Guidelines to planning and management of protected areas in mountain environments Keywords: mountains, protected areas http://app.iucn.org/dbtw-wpd/edocs/2004-017.pdf
1. Guidelines - National System Planning for Protected Areas Actual title: National System Planning for Protected Areas Author: Adrian Davey Summary: IUCN guidelines on planning a national system of protected areas Keywords: planning, protected areas http://app.iucn.org/dbtw-wpd/edocs/PAG-001.pdf
1. Guidelines - Transboundary protected areas Actual title: Transboundary Protected Areas for Peace and Co-operation Author: Trevor Sandwith, Dlare Shine, Larry Hamilton and David Sheppard Summary: Explanation of transboundary protected areas along with guidelines and a draft code of practice, plus information on transboundary protected areas around the world Keywords: transboundary protected area http://app.iucn.org/dbtw-wpd/edocs/PAG-007.pdf
1. Participatory tools - Multiple stakeholder politics - CIFOR Actual title: Where the Power Lies Author: Berevley Sithole Summary: Analysis of multiple stakeholder politics from the Center for International Forestry Research Keywords: stakeholders, power http://www.protectedareas.info/upload/document/wherethepowerlies-multipleshpolitics.pdf
1. Participatory tools - Scenario building from CIFOR http://www.protectedareas.info/upload/document/scenariosforadaptivemgt-cifor.pdfBiome Information
We know much more about conservation of terrestrial biodiversity than freshwater or marine biodiversity. The principles and approaches described here are true for all three realms, but freshwater and marine biodiversity also require some specialised approaches, tools and methodologies . The following links therefore give particular attention to conservation in aquatic environments.
Available Resources For: Biome Information
1. Gap analysis - Freshwater gap analysis Actual title: Freshwater gap analysis Author: Jonathan Higgins and Robin Abell Summary: Summary paper explaining how methodologies need to be adapted to carry out a gap analysis in freshwater ecosystems Keywords: gap analysis, freshwater http://www.protectedareas.info/upload/document/freshwatergapanalysis.pdf
1. Gap analysis - Marine gap analysis Actual title: Marine gap analysis Author: Dan Dorfman Summary: A paper outlining the different approaches needed to carry out a gap analysis in marine and coastal ecosystems Keywords: gap analysis, marine, coastal http://www.protectedareas.info/upload/document/marinegapanalysis.pdfCase studies
A gap analysis cannot be carried out according to a rigid formula, but needs to be developed and modified depending on need, data availability, expertise and the type of species or ecosystems being considered. The resources section therefore also includes examples of gap analysis around the world and shows how the principles and steps can be applied in practice. New case studies will be loaded on as they become available.
1. Case study - Andaman and Nicobar Islands India Actual title: Gap Analysis in Andaman and Nicobar Islands, India: Recent Experiences Author: V B Mathur and Hitendra Padalia Summary: Gap analysis of two large island groups with high biodiversity and endemism, carried out in 2005 by the Wildlife Institute of India Keywords: gap analysis, Andaman and Nicobar, India http://www.protectedareas.info/upload/document/casestudy-andamanandnicobarislandsindia.pdf
1. Case study - Australian freshwater resource book Actual title: The Australia Freshwater Protected Area Resource Book Author: Jon Nevill and Ngaire Phillips Summary: Hugely detailed book about freshwater ecosystems in Australia and the need for new protected areas Keywords: freshwater, protected areas, gap analysis
1. Case study – Bahamas Actual title: Bahamas - Integration of master planning process Author: Anon Summary: Summary of a discussion about application the CBD Programme of Work on Protected Areas in the Caribbean, June 2006 Keywords: gap analysis, Bahamas, CBD http://www.protectedareas.info/upload/document/bahamasintegrationmppandtable.pdf
1. Case study - Belize gap analysis PowerPoint Actual title: National protected areas policy and system plan Author: Jan Meerman Summary: Summary of gap analysis carried out in Belize Keywords: gap analysis, Belize http://www.protectedareas.info/upload/document/belizegapanalysispowerpoint.pdf
1. Case study - Belize gap assessment public draft Actual title: Belize Protected Areas Policy and System Plan: Result 2 Protected Area System Assessment & Analysis - Public Draft Author: J C Meerman Summary: Draft document of a gap analysis in Belize,, carried out by the government and a variety of NGOs, published in 2005 Keywords: Belize, gap analysis http://www.protectedareas.info/upload/document/casestudy-belizegapassessmentpublicdraft.pdf
1. Case study - British Virgin Islands Actual title: Country break out groups to integrate Master Planning Processes: BVI Author: Anon Summary: Summary of a discussion about application the CBD Programme of Work on Protected Areas in the Caribbean, June 2006 Keywords: British Virgin Islands, CBD, gap analysis http://www.protectedareas.info/upload/document/britishvirginislandscountryreport.pdf
1. Case study - Dominican Republic Actual title: Dominican Republic - Country breakout Author: Anon Summary: Summary of a discussion about application the CBD Programme of Work on Protected Areas in the Caribbean, June 2006 Keywords: Dominican Republic, gap analysis http://www.protectedareas.info/upload/document/dominicanrepubliccasestudy.pdf
1. Case study - Endemism in the Maya forest Actual title: Endemism in the Maya forest Author: Jeremy Radachowsky Summary: A report prepared by Wildlife Conservation Society for FIPA and USAID in 2002 Keywords: Maya, endemism http://www.protectedareas.info/upload/document/endemisminthemayaforest.pdf
1. Case study - Gap assessment clinics in the Caribbean Actual title: Gap assessment group clinics (June 21 2006) Author: Anon Summary: Summary of a discussion about application the CBD Programme of Work on Protected Areas in the Caribbean, June 2006 Keywords: Gap assessment, Caribbean http://www.protectedareas.info/upload/document/caribbean-stakeholdersclinicforgapassessment.pdf
1. Case Study - Grenada Actual title: Grenada Protected Areas System Gap Assessment - First Workshop, March 6th & 7th, 2006 Author: James Byrne Summary: Summary of workshop organised by The Nature Conservancy, USAID, the CBD and Government of Grenada on gap assessment Keywords: gap analysis, Grenada http://www.protectedareas.info/upload/document/report_1st_gap_workshop_grenada.pdf
1. Case study - Hawaii marine gap analysis Actual title: Hawaii Marine Gap Analysis Author: Noelani Puniwai Summary: Summary of a marine gap analysis carried out in 2005 by Hawaii Natural Heritage Programme and partners Keywords: Hawaii, gap analysis, marine protected areas http://www.protectedareas.info/upload/document/casestusy-hawaii.pdf
1. Case study - Integration of approaches in the Caribbean Actual title: Integration summary Author: James Byrne Summary: Summary of a discussion about application the CBD Programme of Work on Protected Areas in the Caribbean, June 2006 Keywords: Integration, gap analysis, Caribbean http://www.protectedareas.info/upload/document/integrationincaribbean.pdf
1. Case study - Jamaica - process of selecting marine sites Actual title: ERP Planning framework Author: The Nature Conservancy Summary: Methodology for selecting marine protected areas based around the Marxan software and "common sense" method and Relative Biodiversity Index Keywords: Jamaica, gap analysis, Marxan, marine protected areas http://www.protectedareas.info/upload/document/jamaica-processofselectingmarinesites.pdf
1. Case study - Jamaica freshwater gap analysis Actual title: Jamaica Protected Area Gap Assessment: Freshwater Author: K John Summary: Draft gap analysis of freshwater habitats in Jamaica Keywords: Jamaica, gap analysis, freshwater http://www.protectedareas.info/upload/document/jamaicafreshwatergapanalysis.pdf
1. Case study - Jamaica master planning Actual title: Jamaica - Integration and management effectiveness Author: Anon Summary: Summary prepered for a meeting on implementation of the CBD Programme of Work on Protected Areas in Miami in June 2006 Keywords: Jamaica, protected areas, CBD http://www.protectedareas.info/upload/document/jamaicamasterplanningprocess.pdf
1. Case Study - Latin American Gaps Planning Workshop Actual title: Building on the Past to Secure Biodiversity's Future Author: The Nature Conservancy Summary: Summary of a workshop that took place in Panajachel, Guatemala, 2005 Keywords: gap analysis, Latin America, workshop http://www.protectedareas.info/upload/document/casestudy-latinamericagapsplanningworkshop.pdf
1. Case study – Mexico Actual title: The Mexico Gap Analysis â€“ A cooperative effort Author: Ignacio J. March Summary: National level gap analysis carried out by the Mexican government in cooperation with The Nature Conservancy Keywords: gap analysis, Mexico http://www.protectedareas.info/upload/document/casestudy-mexico.pdf
1. Case study - Priority areas Goias state Brazil Actual title: Conservacao da Biodiversidade Sustentabilidade Ambientale em Goias Author: C. A. de M. Scaramuzza et al Summary: Gap analysis for Goias state in Brazil Keywords: gap analysis, Goias, Brazil http://www.protectedareas.info/upload/document/priorityareasgoiasstatebrazil.pdf
1. Case study - South America priorities assessment Actual title: Looking for the Gaps Author: Steffen Reichle Summary: PowerPoint presentation from The Nature Conservancy comparing the regional priority setting for biodiversity with national gap anlayses Keywords: SACR, Latin America, gap analysis http://www.protectedareas.info/upload/document/southamericaprioritiesassessment.pdf
1. Case study - South American freshwaters Actual title: A Gap Analysis for South America's Threatened and Endangered Freshwater Species Author: R. Ayllon, M.L. Thieme, and R. Abell Summary: Summary of WWF's gap analysis if freshwaters in South America Keywords: gap analysis, freshwater, South America http://www.protectedareas.info/upload/document/casestudy-southamericafreshwaters.pdf
1. Case Study - St Vincent and the Grenadines Actual title: St. Vincent & the Grenadines Protected Areas System Gap Assessment - First Workshop, March 9th & 10th, 2006 Author: James Byrne Summary: Workshop organised by The Nature Conservancy, USAID, the CBD and the government to plan a gap assessment Keywords: St Vincent and the Grenadnines, gap analysis http://www.protectedareas.info/upload/document/report_1st_gap_workshop_svg.pdf
1. Case study - Turkey key biodiversity areas Actual title: Key biodiversity areas: Identifying the world's priority sites for conservation – lessons learned from Turkey Author: Güven Eken, Murat Bozdoğan, Ahmet Karataş, and Yıldıray Lise Summary: Summary of an analysis of the key biodiversity area concept as applied to Turkey Keywords: Turkey, key biodiversity area, KBA http://www.protectedareas.info/upload/document/casestudy-turkeykba.pdf
1. Ecoregion plan - East African marine leaflet Actual title: The Eastern African Marine Ecoregion Author: WWF and partners Summary: 20 page leaflet summarising the biodiversity vision and conservation programme for the ecoregion Keywords: ecoregion, marine protected areas, Africa http://www.protectedareas.info/upload/document/ecoregionplan-eastafricanmarineleaflet.pdf
1. Ecoregion plan - Important areas in the Bering Sea Actual title: Ecoregion-Based Conservation in the Bering Sea - Identifying important areas for biodiversity conservation Author: WWF and The Nature Conservancy Summary: Detailed descriptions of priority areas for conservation Keywords: Bering Sea,
ecoregional plan http://www.protectedareas.info/upload/document/ecoregionplan-importantareasintheberingsea.pdf
1. Ecoregion plan - Northern Great Plain conservation assessment summary Actual title: Ocean of Grass: A Conservation Assessment for Northern Great Plains Author: Steve Forest et al Summary: An ecoregional plan compiled by Northern Plains Conservation Network, published in 2004 Keywords: ecoregional plan, grasslands, Northern Great Plains http://www.protectedareas.info/upload/document/ecoregionplan-northerngreatplainconservationassessmentsummary.pdf
1. Ecoregion plan - Transfly vision process Actual title: A Biodiversity Vision for the TransFly Author: WWF and the Government of Indonesia Summary: Poster explaining the biodiversity vision for an important part of Papua Keywords: biodiversity vision, ecoregion, Papua http://www.protectedareas.info/upload/document/ecoregionplan-transflyvisionprocess.pdf
1. Ecoregional plan - Arizona-New Mexico Actual title: Ecoregional Conservation Analysis of the Arizona-New Mexico Mountains Author: Gary Bell et al Summary: The Nature Conservancy's ecoregional plan for the region Keywords: Arizona, New Mexico, ecoregion http://www.protectedareas.info/upload/document/arizon-nwmountainsecoregion.pdf
1. Ecoregional plan - Central Africa Actual title: A Vision for Biodiversity Conservation in Central Africa Author: Kamdem-Toham, A., J. D'Amico, D. Olson, A. Blom, L.Trowbridge, N. Burgess, M. Thieme, R. Abell, R.W. Carroll, S. Gartlan, O. Langrand, R. Mikala Mussavu, D. O'Hara, and H. Strand Summary: WWF's ecoregional action plan for Central Africa Keywords: Central Africa, ecoregion http://www.worldwildlife.org/wildplaces/congo/index.cfm#vision
1. Ecoregional plan - Chihuahuan desert Actual title: Chihuahuan desert ecoregional plan Author: The Nature Conservancy Summary: Summary document outlining key elements in the ecoregional plan Keywords: ecoregion, Chihuahuan desert
1. Ecoregional plan – Fiji Actual title: Ecoregional Planning and Conservation in Fiji for a Sustainable Ocean Author: Kesia Tabunakawai and Francis Areki Summary: Paper from WWF South Pacific Programme Keywords: marine protected area, ecoregion, Fiji http://www.protectedareas.info/upload/document/ecoregionalplan-fiji.pdf
1. Guidelines - Community conserved areas Actual title: Community conserved areas - a bold frontier for conservation Author: Anon Summary: Information sheet from WCPA, CEESP and others Keywords: communty conserved areas http://www.protectedareas.info/upload/document/guidelines-communityconservedareas.pdf
Using Gap Analysis to Interpret Importance with SatisfactionWhat is gap analysis in snap?
Gap analysis shows the difference between how important attributes are to your respondents and how satisfied they are with those attributes. It is a really useful way of comparing the results from your satisfaction and importance questions and allows for easy interpretation.
By comparing importance and satisfaction scores on your chart you can use gap analysis to identify priorities for improvement.
Gap analysis indicates that if the satisfaction bar is shorter than the importance one the company may have a problem!
Interpreting the gap analysis chart:
A 5-point scale has been used on this questionnaire for both importance and satisfaction ratings from 1 to 5. (1= totally dissatisfied to 5= totally satisfied) and (1= not at all important to 5 = extremely important). The chart tells us how important various aspects of service are to customers, compared with how satisfied customers actually are with particular attributes e.g. helpdesk and users guide. The gap is the mean score for the satisfaction rating subtracted from the mean score for the importance rating, e.g. Q5c-Q3c.
The table on the following page gives an interpretation of the findings in the chart. To summarise, if the mean score of a service is positive – above zero, then respondents’ rate the service very important but they are not satisfied with the service they are receiving. In this instance, action is required. If the gap is below zero, negative, this indicates over achievement; respondents’ rate this attribute relatively unimportant, but are very satisfied with the service. In this instance no action/improvement is required. The closer the gap is to zero the better balance there is between importance and satisfaction.
Type of gap ServicePriority
Large positive gap
On-time delivery 1 A large, positive gap reflects respondents who think on time delivery is a very important feature, but their satisfaction of this service is low = Priority for improvementIt is essential that the company look into improving their on-time delivery rates in order
not to lose their customers.
Small positive gap
2 Again, respondents rated helpdesk as a relatively important feature compared to their satisfaction, but their satisfaction of this service falls short of this requirement. Again, this could be seen as an area for improvement, e.g. more helpdesk training or more staff on the helpdesk required.
Small negative gap
User Guides 3 Customers have rated this with higher satisfaction than importance. More time could therefore be spent improving other products.
Large negative gap
E-Newsletter 4 Respondents have given the E-newsletter high satisfaction scores when answering this question, but they do not think this it is an important feature. The company needs to concentrate on improving other services and products and leave the E-newsletter as low priority.
The difference between where we are and someone else is at the moment is a “gap”. The gap could be positive (that is, we are in a better position) or negative (our position is worse). In competitive intelligence, we study gaps (especially the negative ones) because we want to know and explain what our competitors are doing to create a significant advantage for themselves.
(See a video presentation on this topic by clicking here.)
So, we study and communicate the gaps and then we are done?
Nope. Identifying the known gaps (though not necessarily easy) is only the first step in a robust gap analysis process. Here are the 5 steps to comprehensively think through gaps, to create simple tracking methods and to ultimately get to the actions that will close the gaps.
1. Start with the “known” gaps.
“Known” gaps are the ones for which there is general agreement about their identity and significance. For instance, we may know that competitor X is about to introduce their new product which is 20% faster than any product that we have. Since there has been a press announcement, live demonstrations which seem to confirm the claims and an established track record for the competitor, we can firmly believe that the product and the claims for it are real. Furthermore, we know that our customers highly value performance. Hence, this is a gap that is well characterized and is significant to our competitive position.
To assemble a starting list of known gaps, solicit input from the management, business development, marketing and sales teams. For each gap that they identify, make sure that it is specific and well described, that the impact is estimated and each competitor which is better is noted.
There will be some of these gaps which cannot be fully described. These are the “potential” gaps.
2. Create a backlog of “potential” gaps.
“Potential” gaps do not meet the full criteria to be considered as known gaps. There may be information missing about the exact nature of the gap or its impact. Using the preceding example, if we hear that our competitor is introducing a “faster” product sometime in the future, we might conclude that this could be significant to us. However, it could make a large difference if it is 10% faster in three years or 50% faster in six months. Without more information, it is also very difficult to assess the potential significance of the gap. Still, knowing the competitor well may lead us to believe that “where there is smoke, there is fire.” The proper action is to keep track of the potential gap and to assign someone (e.g., the competitive intelligence function) to collect information about it. Then, when the uncertainty threshold is crossed and the evidence is more substantial, the potential gap can be escalated to a known gap status.
How do we look even further back in time to find things that lead to the potential gaps?
3. Make a list of triggers which may lead to gaps.
Triggers are not gaps. Instead, they are events, activities, announcements and such that may signal gaps in the future. Why are they important? They are important because companies rarely operate in a vacuum. Public companies, especially, signal much of what they plan to do through all types of disclosures. If we are attuned to these disclosures, we get hints of future strategic directions. Continuing the faster product example, it is entirely possible that the competitor had made patent filings years before the product was announced. They may have purchased the assets of another company with specific technology competencies. They may be actively making venture investments in small companies with complementary products. In an ongoing business, all of these types of triggers are predictable. A trigger list can serve to organize the monitoring of such triggers. Then, when several of them have “tripped”, it may be reasonable to investigate whether or not a competitive gap is imminent.
Triggers are often driven by broader forces in the market.
4. List the key trends which affect the market.
It starts to get a little fuzzier in this category. Nevertheless, tracking demographic, technology, product, legal and other areas is important. In technology, the broad trends of things getting smaller, faster, cheaper and more communicative is not a revelation to most people. More recently, the trends toward more social media, lowering energy consumption, increasing recycling features and more emerging market support are becoming important. The key to trend monitoring to find the ones that most affect customers (and, therefore, their buying decisions). After an important trend is identified, then it is critical to understand the rate at which the trend is being responded to in the market. The goal is to eventually identify the triggers (see step 3) which more concretely describe when and how competitors might gain some advantage.
How do we maintain all of this information? Simple. Create four spreadsheets and track the known gaps, potential gaps, triggers and trends. Last, establish action plans.
5. Assign actions for all areas.
Assign each one to a person that must define and execute an action plan to close the gap. This usually must be a manager with sufficient authority and ability to work across organizations because all know gaps must be “significant.” Put another way, these are hard problems to solve but their resolution is critical to a company’s competitive position.
Assign these to the competitive intelligence function and require a periodic report to a responsible manager. The goal is to actively determine whether to demote the gap if it is insignificant or to escalate it when it can be fully characterized. The escalation process must be a part of a regular review cycle or it could become ineffective due to its irregular or inconsistent use.
Assign these to the outward facing functions of your organization. These may be the business development or product marketing teams. Their responsibility is to look for the specific trigger information and feed it back to a coordinating competitive intelligence function. The CI team then coordinates the evaluation of the triggers and decides when a potential gap has been identified.
Assign these to the market research team and the technology team. Their mission is to help the organization understand when a trend accelerates to the point where there are specific, compelling market responses occurring. Once the responses are being seen, then triggers are identified for each competitor to understand how they intend to act.
Gap analysis can be a straightforward, organization energizing and fruitful process. The keys are to discriminate the different types of information, assign the responsibilities correctly for each and establish a process of regular review with management.
A more complete treatment of Gap Analysis can be found at http://tinyurl.com/yk8fcq6 or on my website at http://www.jthawes.com.
Herramientas y metodologías
Una mejora propuesta no siempre implica una mejora real. Incluso tras exhaustivos procesos de análisis y
planificación de las posibles mejoras se han podido obviar aspectos críticos o imponderables que pueden afectar
negativamente a los servicios y procesos. Es indispensable disponer de metodologías y herramientas que permitan
valorar las mejoras introducidas y comparar el “estado de situación” antes y después de la introducción de los
Es imposible enumerar todas las herramientas y metodologías disponibles por lo que aquí nos centraremos en
algunas de las más populares. Éste listado, aunque manisfiestamente incompleto, puede servirnos como punto de
partida para ahondar en el tema.
Consiste en comparar el rendimiento de las actividades y procesos llevados a cabo por la organización con aquellos
que han sido considerados como “mejores prácticas”.
Este análisis puede ser realizado a distintos niveles:
Interno: comparando con otros procesos o funciones de la propia organización.
Externo: comparando con otras organizaciones competidoras o directamente con los estándares del sector.
Los resultado de este análisis deben incluir:
Información sobre el rendimiento de la organización.
Factores de éxito y riesgos.
Propuestas sobre nuevas líneas de actuación.
Análisis de brechas (Gap analysis)
El análisis de brechas se basa en contrastar el “estado de la situación actual” y el “estado esperado o ideal”. Las
diferencias entre ambas situaciones suponen las brechas que se desea eliminar.
Este análisis se puede realizar a diferentes niveles: estratégico, táctico y operativo.
Se centra en el análisis de las Debilidades, Amenazas, Fortalezas y Oportunidades.
Las Debilidades y Fortalezas son de carácter interno y dependientes en este caso de la propia organización TI
mientras que las Amenazas y Oportunidades provienen de factores de mercado u otros factores externos.
El análisis DAFO puede realizarse a diferentes niveles, desde una componente o función hasta englobar a toda la
Sus principales objetivos consisten en:
Determinar las Debilidades y buscar métodos para eliminarlas.
Valorar las Amenazas e intentar minimizar su impacto.
Conocer las propias Fortalezas y buscar la mejor manera de rentabilizarlas.
Estudiar las Oportunidades y desarrollar estrategias que permitan aprovecharlas.
Cuadro de Mando Integral (CMI)
Es un método diseñado por Robert Kaplan y David Norton para evaluar la actividad de una organización en términos
de cumplimiento de su plan estratégico.
El Cuadro de Mando Integral (CMI) propone analizar la actividad de una organización respecto a diferentes
Innovación y Aprendizaje
Es imprescindible determinar los KPIs asociados a cada una de estas perspectivas y cuáles son los objetivos
buscados. Se recomienda buscar un conjunto reducido de KPIs que luego pueda ir ampliándose con el tiempo para
evitar CMIs excesivamente complejos que dificulten su implementación.
1. Creo que en este caso la traducción de Gap Analysis sería mas bien Analisis de Brecha...no estoy seguro pero me parece que eso explica mejor lo que es Gap Analysis. Gap Analysis, como yo lo entiendo, es un proceso donde buscas contestar 3 preguntas...1. Donde estamos ahora2. Donde queremos llegar en el futuro3. Que tenemos que hacer para llegar de donde estamos a donde queremos estar. (o sea, como atravesamos la brecha)
Estoy pensando de esto en un contexto de negocios, se usa un gap analysis cuando haces planes estrategicos de negocios.
Español no es mi idioma nativo (ya lo supieron!) Estan de acuerdo?
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